Divided loyalties? Dual citizenship and high-ranking political office in Somalia

On 1stAugust 2019, Somali President, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed ‘Farmaajo’ renounced his American citizenship. In a press release, the President stated that he “voluntarily filed for the renunciation” even though Somalia’s Provisional Constitution allows for dual citizenship. The press release also noted that the decision was reached after the completion of legal and immigration processes that had been started when Farmaajo was elected as Somalia President in 2017. Read more

Daacadnimo qeybsan? Labada jinsiyadood iyo xafiisyada siyaasadda sarsare ee Soomaaliya

1-dii Agoosto 2019, Madaxweynaha Soomaaliya Maxamed Cabdullaahi Maxamed ‘Farmaajo’ ayaa dib uga laabtey muwaadinnimadiisa Mareykanka. War-saxaafadeed ayuu Madaxweynuhu ku sheegay in “si iskiis ah uu uga laabtay” jinsiyaddiisa labaad inkastoo Dastuurka Kumeelgaarka ah ee Soomaaliya uu oggolaanayo labada muwaadinnimo. War-saxaafadeedka ayaa sidoo kale lagu sheegay in go’aanka la gaaray kadib markii la dhameystiray habraaca sharciga iyo socdaalka oo soo bilowday markii Farmaajo loo doortay Madweynaha Soomaaliya sanadkii 2017. Read more

The problems of fused parliament-cabinet membership in Somalia

Separation of powers (trias politica) is a fundamental principle for modern states, and is devised to equally distribute responsibilities and authorities among government organs. It is used to serve as guarantee that no arm of government overpowers another arm and, as result, provides checks and balances. Read more

Dhibaatooyinka isku milanka xubnaha baarlamaaka iyo golaha wasiirrada Soomaaliya

Kala saaridda awoodaha waxa ay gundhig u tahay dowladaha casriga ah, waana hannaan si siman awoodaha ugu qeybinayo laamaha dowladda. Waxa uu damaanad qaadayaa in laan kamid ah dowladda aanay ka awood badinin laan kale, waxana uu keenayaa isku dheelitirnaan awoodeed iyo isla xisaabtan. Read more

Review of Somalia’s 2019 budget for judiciary institutions, public services and economic development

On the last day of December 2018, the Somali Federal Parliament’s House of the People approved the 2019 federal government budget prepared by the Ministry of Finance. The total budget appropriated for the 2019 fiscal year is $344 million. This is a $70 million increase on last year’s $274 million fiscal budget. It is significant compared to past increases: the 2018 budget was only $14 million higher than 2017’s $260 million budget. Read more

Falanqeyn miisaaniyadda sanadka 2019 loo qorsheeyay hay’adaha garsoorka, adeegyada bulshada iyo horumarinta dhaqaalaha Soomaaliya

Maalintii ugu dambeysay ee sanadkii 2018, Golaha Shacabka ee Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya ayaa ansixiyay miisaaniyadda sanadka 2019 ee dowladda federaalka oo ay soo diyaarisay Wasaaradda Maaliyadda. Wadarta guud ee miisaaniyadda sanadka 2019 ayaa ah $344 malyan. Waxa ay $70 malyan ka badan tahay miisaaniyaddii sanadkii hore oo ahayd $274 malyan. Waa koror badan marka la barbar dhigo sanadihii hore: miisaaniyaddii sanadkii 2018-ka waxa ay $14 malyan oo kaliya ka badnayd miisaaniyaddii 2017 oo ahayd $260 malyan. Read more

The NGO-ization of Somali public sector

Members of Somali Public Agenda were invited to participate in a local forum that brought together civil society, government and other actors to discuss and debate on current complex issues. This time, a senior government official was invited. Read more

NGO ka dhigista hay’adaha danta guud ee Soomaaliya

Xubno matirsan Somali Public Agenda ayaa lagu casumay in ay ka qeyb qaataan madal isku keentay bulshada rayidka, dowladda iyo qeybaha kale ee bulshada si ay uga doodaan arrimaha cakiran ee dalka. Kulanka waxa ku casumnaa in uu ka hadlo xubin sare oo katirsan dowladda. Read more

Re-introducing the Somali Shilling in Beledweyne

Where in the world have people abandoned paper money entirely? It is not Silicon Valley and not Singapore but, of all places, Beledweyne, the capital of Hiiraan region of Somalia. Since November 2017, the Somali Shilling has not been used in Beledweyne. Mobile money and hard currency US dollars are the only acceptable modes of payment in the market. Although the understanding and literacy of the majority of the residents in using mobile money is low, the community in Beledweyne have no other option but to use mobile technology and US dollars for daily transactions. The EVC Plus Service of Hormuud Telecommunications Company and E-Dahab of Somtel Telecommunications Company provide the only acceptable electronic money in the city. Read more

Dib-usoo-celinta isticmaalka Shilinka Soomaaliga ee magaalada Beledweyne

Halkee dunida kamid ah oo ay dadku gebi ahaanba iska joojiyeen isticmaalka lacagta warqadda ah? Ma ahan Silicon Valley mana ahan Singapore, laakiin waa Beledweyne, magaalo madaxda gobolka Hiiraan ee Soomaaliya. Lagasoo billaabo bishii Nofeembar ee sanadkii 2017, lacagta Shilin Somaaliga lagama isticmaalin Beledweyne. Lacagaha moobilka lagu qaato iyo lacagta adag ee doollarka Mareykanka ayaa ah lacagta kaliya ee la oggol-yahay in wax lagu kala iibsado suuqyada. Inkastoo fahamka iyo aqoonta dad badan oo deggan magaalada ay u leeyihiin isticmaalka lacagaha moobilka ay aad u hooseyso, haddana bulshada Beledweyne ma haystaan wax ikhtiyaar ah oo aan ahayn in ay lacagta lagu qaato moobilka iyo doollarka Mareykanka u isticmaalaan wax kala iibsiga maalinlaha ah. Adeegga EVC- Plus ee Shirkadda Isgaarsiinta Hormuud iyo adeegga E-Dahab oo ay leedahay Shirkadda Isgaarsiinta Somtel ayaa ah lacagaha electroniga ah ee magaalada laga isticmaalo. Read more

Tolerant government and responsible opposition: reversing Somalia’s political dilemma

The existence of opposition and critics in a democratic polity is indispensable for the key roles they play. They hold governments in check and scrutinize how government policies are formulated, administered and implemented. Further, they criticise how a government falls short in fulfilling the promises it made during and after the election periods. Read more

Xukuumad dulqaad leh iyo mucaarad xilkas ah: tubta looga weecan karo xasaradaha siyaasadeed ee Soomaaliya

Nidaamka dimuqaariga ahi inuu leeyahay mucaarad iyo dad wax dhaliila waa mid lagama maarmaan ah marka la eego kaalinta muhiimka ah oo ay leeyihiin. Xukuumadaha ayay xisaabiyaan waxayana baaraan sida ay u dejiyaan siyaasadaha, u maareeyaan, una fuliyaan. Intaa waxaa dheer, waxa ay dhaliilaan sida xukuumaduhu uga gaabiyaan ka dhabeynta ballan-qaadyadii ay sameeyeen wakhtiga doorashada iyo ka gadaalba. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Is multi-partyism a viable option for Somali political stability?

Somalia is witnessing the revival of political parties, which vanished from the political landscape about fifty years ago when a coup d’état led by General Mohamed Siyad Barre took power in 1969. The coup prompted the demise of the established liberal multiparty system that had animated the scene since the 1940s and set the tone for the first 9 years of post-independence politics. This liberal experiment was considered highly democratic by some, and corrupt and unscrupulous by others. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Ma yahay nidaamka xisbiyada badani mid xasilooni siyaasadeed u horseedi kara Soomaaliya?

Soomaaliya waxaa dib uga curanaya nidaamka xisbiyada badan kuwaa oo kamaqnaa saaxadda siyaasadeed ku dhowaad konton sano (50 sano) kadib afganbigii uu Jeneeral Maxamed Siyaad Barre hormuudka ka ahaa oo ay militariga hoggaanka dalka kula wareegeen sanadkii 1969-kii. Afganbigaas wuxuu soo afjaray nimaadkii xisbiyada badanaa oo ka bullaalay gayiga Soomaaliya lagasoo bilaabo 1940-aadkii gundhigna u ahaa siyaasadii sagaalkii sano ee xoriyadda ka danbeysay. Dadka qaar waxa ay u arkaan sagaalkaas sano xiligii dimuqraadiyadda halka kuwa kalana u arkaan xili musuq iyo dhaqan xumo ku habsatay wadanka. Read more

Beyond short-termism: why Somali presidents should serve one term only

Somalia is due to undertake nationwide parliamentary and presidential elections in late 2020 and early 2021 respectively. Despite the enormous political, security and financial challenges, politicians have already started to prepare. Political parties are expected to compete for seats, and the National Independent Electoral Commission has already registered over 20 political parties. Read more

Ka gudbidda muddada gaaban: Sababta ay tahay in madaxweynayaasha Soomaaliya uu muddo xileedkoodu u noqdo hal xilli oo kaliya

Soomaaliya waxaa la qorsheynayaa in ay ka dhacdo doorasho qaran oo lagu doorto xildhibaannada iyo madaxweynaha federaalka dhamaadka sanadka 2020 iyo horaanta sanadka 2021. Inkastoo ay jiraan caqabado siyaasadeed, kuwo amni iyo kuwo dhaqaale oo aad u badan, haddana siyaasiyiinta ayaa bilwaabey in ay isku diyaariyaan doorashooyinka. Xisbiyo siyaasadeed ayaa la filayaa in ay u tartamaan kuraasta, Gudiga Madaxa Banaan Ee Doorashooyinka Qarankana waxa uu  diwaangaliyay in ka badan 20 xisbi siyaasadeed. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Options for political reconciliation in Somalia

Somalia’s federal and regional leaders have been in intense political friction recently. At the peak of these tensions, the regional presidents and their aides – who met in Kismayo in early September 2018 – decided to suspend their relationship with the federal government until their concerns were negotiated and addressed via the mediation of a third party. The regional presidents justified this position by citing a number of political and security concerns with the government in Mogadishu. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Siyaabaha heshiis siyaasadeed looga dhalin karo Soomaaliya

Madaxda Soomaaliya heer federal iyo heer maamul goboleed waxaa muddooyinkii danbe ka dhex jiray jahwareer siyaasadeed. Xiisadda ayaa gaartay meeshii ugu sarreysay markii ay madaxweynayaasha maamul goboleedyada – oo kulan ku yeeshay magaalada Kismaayo horraantii bisha Sebteembar 2018 – ay go’aansadeen in ay hakiyaan xiriirka wadashaqeyn oo ay la lahaayeen dowladda federaalka ilaa iyo inta cabashooyinkooda laga wada xaajoonayo heshiisna laga gaarayo iyada oo ay gacan saddexaad dhexdhexaadineyso. Madaxda maamul goboleedyada waxa ay sabab uga dhigeen go’aankooda arrimo dhowr ah oo isugu jira kuwo siyaasadeed iyo kuwo amni oo ay kaga cabanayaan dowladda fadhigeedu yahay Muqdisho. Read more

Is it the time to print a new currency for Somalia?

The Federal Government is planning to print a new currency for Somalia. In early June 2018, the Minister of Finance of the Federal Government of Somalia introduced the design of 5,000 and 10,000 Somali Shillings. A press conference held by the governor of the Central Bank of Somalia in late June 2018 further elucidated the division of the currency. The governor stated that the currency will consist of 1,000, 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Somali Shillings. Read more

Ma la joogaa wakhtigii lacag cusub loo daabici lahaa Soomaaliya?

Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya waxa ay qorsheyneysaa in ay lacag cusub daabacdo. Horraantii bishii Juun ee sanadkan 2018, Wasiirka Maaliyadda ee Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya ayaa soo bandhigay naqshado 5,000 iyo 10,000 Shillin Soomaali cusub ah. Shir jaraa’id ee uu qabtay guddoomiyaha Bangiga Dhexe ee Soomaaliya dhamaadkii bishii Juun ee 2018 ayaa lagu sii caddeeyay inta ay ka koobnaan doonto lacagta cusub. Guddoomiyaha waxa uu sheegay in lacagta ay ka koobnaan doonto 1,000, 2,000, 5,000 iyo 10,000 Shillin Soomaali. Read more

Somalia: Why Local Governance Matters

For the public sector to remain relevant and trusted in the eyes of the citizens, the Somali government and its international partners have to respond to the evolving and often high expectations of the citizens in terms of overall political direction, and more importantly, in service delivery or the way in which services are delivered in the federal context.

Soomaaliya: Muhiimadda Maalgelinta Dowladaha Hoose

Si hay’adaha dowladda u noqdaan kuwo ay shacabku aaminaan kalsoonina ku qabaan, dowladda Soomaaliya iyo taageerayaasheeda caalamka waa in ay ka jawaabaan baahida shacabka ee dhinacyada jiheynta siyaasadda iyo gaarsiinta adeegyada aasaasiga ah.

Somali Public Agenda

Creating an enduring constitution for Somalia: a roadmap for the review process

The process of drafting a federal constitution for Somalia dates back to 2004 when a Federal Charter and a federal system of governance were adopted in Kenya. The Transitional Charter mandated the formation of an independent commission that would prepare a new federal constitution in two and half years. However, the commission was only formed two years later, in 2006, by the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) president, Abdullahi Yusuf. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Sida dastuur waara loogu sameyn karo Soomaaliya: Dhabbe loo mari karo dib-u-eegista dastuurka

Dastuur-u-sameynta Soomaaliya waxa ay soo bilaabatay sanadkii 2004 markaas oo Axdiga Federaalka iyo nidaamka federaalka lagu qaatay dalka Kenya. Axdigii Kumeelgaarka waxa uu farayay in la sameeyo guddi madax bannaan ee muddo labo sano iyo bar ah ku diyaariya dastuur cusub oo federaal ah. Guddiga waxa labo sano kadib sanadkii 2006 sameeyay madaxweynihii Dowladdii Federaalka Kumeelgaarka Cabdullaahi Yuusuf. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Judiciary models for Somalia

At the outset of the union between British and Italian Somalilands in 1960, Somalia’s judiciary sector faced systematic challenges. The Law of the Organization of the Judiciary in 1962 reconciled and harmonized the British Common and Italian Latin law systems of the respective former colonial administrations. An integrated judiciary system served both centralized unitary civilian and military governments until the latter was overthrown in 1991. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Hababka nidaaminta garsoorka Soomaaliya

Midowgii gobolladii Ingiriiska iyo Talyaaniga ay gumeysan jireen ee sanadkii 1960-kii kadib, garsoorka Soomaaliya waxa uu wajahay caqabado dhanka isla-jaanqaadka ah. Sharciga Nidaaminta Garsoorka ee la ansixiyay sanadkii 1962-dii ayaa is-waafajiyay nidaamyada sharci ee Ingiriiska iyo Talyaaniga oo ay labada gobol horey u isticmaali jireen. Nidaam garsoor mideysan ah ayay ku dhaqmeen dowladihii rayidka iyo militariga ee dalka kasoo arrimiyay ilaa xukunkii laga riday dowladdii militariga sanadkii 1991. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Reforming civil service in Somalia

Public [or civil] servants are the government employees responsible for the implementation of public policies and delivering government services to the citizens. Establishing capable and professional civil servants is a fundamental component of state-building. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Dib-u-habaynta shaqaalaha rayidka Soomaaliya

Shaqaalaha rayidka waa howlwadeennada dowladda ee masuulka ka ah hirgelinta qorshayaalka dowladda iyo in shacabka la gaarsiiyo adeegyada dowladda. Dhisidda shaqaale rayid tayo leh, xirfad-yaqaanna ah waxa ay qeyb muhiim ah ka tahay dowlad dhisidda.

Tan iyo markii madaxbannaanida la qaatay, shaqaalaha rayidka Soomaaliya waxa ay wajaheen caqabado badan. Dowladihii rayidka iyo militariga ee dalka ka arriminayay intii u dhexeysay sanadihii 1960-kii ilaa 1991-dii waxa ay ku guuldarreysteen in ay yegleelaan hay’ad shaqaale rayid tayo leh. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Somalia: The nexus between taxation, public trust and public services

The Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) has recently started financial reform initiatives aimed at increasing domestic revenue. The government commenced the collection of two types of tax: income tax and sales tax. Income tax collection — 6% on salaries between $200 and $800; 12% on salaries between $800 and $1500 and 18% on salaries above $1500 — was started for the employees working with some private companies and international non-governmental organizations operating in Somalia Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Soomaaliya: Xiriirka ka dhexeeya canshuurta, kalsoonida shacabka iyo adeegyada bulshada

Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya waxa ay dhawaan bilowday is-bedello dhanka maaliyadda ah ee lagu kobciyo dakhliga gudaha. Dowladda waxa ay bilowday uruurinta laba nooc oo canshuur ah: canshuurta dakhliga iyo canshuurta iibka. Canshuurta dakhliga oo ah 6% mushaarka u dhexeeya $200 iyo $800; 12% mushaarka u dhexeeya $800 iyo $1500 iyo 18% mushaarka ka badan $1500 ayaa la bilaabay in laga qaado shaqaalaha la shaqeeya qaar kamid ah shirkadaha gaarka loo leeyahay iyo hay’adaha caalamiga ah ee aan dowliga ahayn ee ka howlgala Soomaaliya Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Review of Somalia’s 2018 budget for public services and economic development

Budgets are a reflection of government priorities for each fiscal year. How does the 2018 Federal Government Somalia’s (FGS)’s budget reflect its prioritization of public services and economic development? Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Falanqeyn miisaaniyadda sanadka 2018 loo qorsheeyay adeegga bulshada iyo horumarinta dhaqaalaha Soomaaliya

Miisaaniyadaha waxa ay muujiyaan qeybaha ay dowlad waliba mudnaanta siineyso sanad-miisaaniyadeed kasta. Haddaba sidee ayay miisaaniyadda dowladda federaalka ee sanadka 2018 mudnaan u siineysaa qeybaha adeegga bulshada iyo horumarinta dhaqaalaha? Read more