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Division of powers and responsibilities in a federal Somalia

Somalia adopted a federal system of governance in 2004, although the formation of regional states only began in 2013. Four states have been formed under the auspices of the provisional constitution, in which the separation of executive powers and responsibilities between the different tiers of government remains unclear. Amidst this state of constitutional ambiguity, power struggles between the federal government and regional states have been – and remain – persistent. The constitutional review commissions reviewed the power-sharing options and presented scenarios to the parliament in 2016, but they have yet to be adopted and offer only a limited solution. In response to this protracted absence of a clarified governance structure, this brief presents new options to distribute powers and responsibilities to the different levels of government.

download the full governance brief

Soomaaliya waxa ay qaadatay nidaam federaal sanadkii 2004, balse dhismaha maamul goboleedyadu waxa ay bilowdeen 2013. Afar maamul goboleed ayaa la dhisay iyadoo dastuurka kumeelgaarka ah aanu si wanaagsan u kala saareynin awoodaha fulinta ee heerarka kala duwan ee dowladdu leeyihiin. Maadaama dastuurku aanu kala caddeyn awoodaha, hardanka awoodeed ee u dhexeeya dowladda federaalka iyo maamul goboleedyada waxa uu ahaa welina yahay mid joogto ah. Guddiyada dib-u-eegista dastuurka waxa ay dib-u-eegis ku sameeyeen awood qeybsiga waxana ay talooyin u gudbiyeen baarlamaanka sanadkii 2016, laakiin talooyinkoodii weli lama qaadanin. Maadaama hannaanka awood qeybsigu aanu caddeyn, warbixintan waxa ay soo jeedineynaa talooyin cusub ee la xiriira sida awoodaha iyo masuuliyadaha loogu qeybin karo heerarka kala duwan ee dowladda.

soo rogo warbixinta oo dhameystiran

The problems of fused parliament-cabinet membership in Somalia

Separation of powers (trias politica) is a fundamental principle for modern states, and is devised to equally distribute responsibilities and authorities among government organs. It is used to serve as guarantee that no arm of government overpowers another arm and, as result, provides checks and balances. Read more

Dhibaatooyinka isku milanka xubnaha baarlamaaka iyo golaha wasiirrada Soomaaliya

Kala saaridda awoodaha waxa ay gundhig u tahay dowladaha casriga ah, waana hannaan si siman awoodaha ugu qeybinayo laamaha dowladda. Waxa uu damaanad qaadayaa in laan kamid ah dowladda aanay ka awood badinin laan kale, waxana uu keenayaa isku dheelitirnaan awoodeed iyo isla xisaabtan. Read more

Somali Public Agenda

Examining public schools in Mogadishu

In October 2018, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Higher Education of the Federal Government of Somalia took over the management of 24 public schools in Mogadishu. The government recruited and directly pays teachers and no tuition fee is collected from students at all grades (1-12). The 24 schools are the first federal government-run schools in Somalia since the state collapse in 1991. This governance brief is based on school visits and interviews with different stakeholders in Mogadishu. It examines students, teachers, payment processes, curriculum, and the challenges schools face. It concludes with policy options and recommendations.

download the full governance brief

Bishii Oktoobar 2018, Wasaaradda Waxbarashada, Hiddaha iyo Tacliinta Sare ee Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya ayaa la wareegtay maamulidda 24 iskuul dowladeed oo ku yaalla magaalada Muqdishu. Dowladda ayaa shaqaaleysiisay si toos ahna mushaar u siisa macalimiinta iskuullada, ardayda heerarkooda kala duwanna (1-12) wax lacag ah lagama qaado. 24-ka iskuul ayaa ah dugsiyadii ugu horreeyay oo ay dowladda federaalka ah maamusho tan iyo markii ay dowladdii dhexe burburtay sanadkii 1991-dii. Faalladan kooban waxa ay ku saleysan tahay booqasho lagu tagay iskuullada iyo wareysiyo lala yeeshay daneeyeyaal kala duwan ee dugsiyada dowladda. Waxa ay taxliilineysaa ardayda, macallimiinta, mushaar bixinta, manhajka, iyo caqabadaha heysta iskuullada. Waxa ay qormada kusoo gunaanadeysaa talooyin tixgelin mudan.

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Somali youth employment crisis

Somalia has a very youthful population. Fragile and weak public institutions, insecurity, poor infrastructure and lack of decent employment opportunities has left many youths unemployed, underemployed or working in vulnerable conditions.  Employment opportunities are limited, and selection is often not competitive. This governance brief is based on discussions with youth in Mogadishu. It examines the causes of and consequences of the youth employment crisis. It concludes with a number of policy options and recommendations.

Download the full governance brief

Shacabka Soomaaliyeed waxaa u badan dhalinyaro. Hay’adaha dowladda oo ay awooddoodu yartahay, amni xumo, kaabayaashii oo burbursan, iyo fursado badan oo shaqo oo aanan jirin ayaa ka dhigay dhalinyaro badan kuwo shaqo la’aan ah ama ku shaqeeya xaalado adag. Fursadaha shaqo waa ay yar yihiin, xulashada shaqaalahana tartan furan kuma saleysna. Warbixintan waxa ay falanqeyneysaa sababaha keena dhibaatooyinka shaqo ee heysta dhalinyarada, waxyaabaha ka dhasha. Waxa ay warbixintu kusoo gunaanadeysaa talooyin tixgelin mudan.

Soo rogo warbixinta oo dhameystiran

Review of Somalia’s 2019 budget for judiciary institutions, public services and economic development

On the last day of December 2018, the Somali Federal Parliament’s House of the People approved the 2019 federal government budget prepared by the Ministry of Finance. The total budget appropriated for the 2019 fiscal year is $344 million. This is a $70 million increase on last year’s $274 million fiscal budget. It is significant compared to past increases: the 2018 budget was only $14 million higher than 2017’s $260 million budget. Read more

Falanqeyn miisaaniyadda sanadka 2019 loo qorsheeyay hay’adaha garsoorka, adeegyada bulshada iyo horumarinta dhaqaalaha Soomaaliya

Maalintii ugu dambeysay ee sanadkii 2018, Golaha Shacabka ee Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya ayaa ansixiyay miisaaniyadda sanadka 2019 ee dowladda federaalka oo ay soo diyaarisay Wasaaradda Maaliyadda. Wadarta guud ee miisaaniyadda sanadka 2019 ayaa ah $344 malyan. Waxa ay $70 malyan ka badan tahay miisaaniyaddii sanadkii hore oo ahayd $274 malyan. Waa koror badan marka la barbar dhigo sanadihii hore: miisaaniyaddii sanadkii 2018-ka waxa ay $14 malyan oo kaliya ka badnayd miisaaniyaddii 2017 oo ahayd $260 malyan. Read more

The NGO-ization of Somali public sector

Members of Somali Public Agenda were invited to participate in a local forum that brought together civil society, government and other actors to discuss and debate on current complex issues. This time, a senior government official was invited. Read more

NGO ka dhigista hay’adaha danta guud ee Soomaaliya

Xubno matirsan Somali Public Agenda ayaa lagu casumay in ay ka qeyb qaataan madal isku keentay bulshada rayidka, dowladda iyo qeybaha kale ee bulshada si ay uga doodaan arrimaha cakiran ee dalka. Kulanka waxa ku casumnaa in uu ka hadlo xubin sare oo katirsan dowladda. Read more